Mountain sickness - First Aid

Anonim

First aid

First aid

Outdoor life pathologies

Tetanus Animal bites Freezing and freezing Mountain sickness Poisoning and accidental poisoning Carbon monoxide poisoning Accidental needle punctures and the like: what are the risks? What to do? What not to do? Red eye Car sickness and seasickness (motion sickness)
  • Tetanus
  • Animal bites
  • Freezing and freezing
  • Mountain sickness
    • How to prevent altitude sickness
    • What to do
  • Accidental poisoning and poisoning
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Accidental needle sticks and the like: what are the risks? What to do? What not to do?
  • Red eye
  • Car sickness and seasickness (motion sickness)

Mountain sickness

By altitude sickness we mean a set of symptoms, respiratory and cerebral, which can appear in people who ascend quickly to the high mountains without a previous correct acclimation. In addition to headaches, disorders that can occur include gastrointestinal problems (loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting), insomnia, dizziness, tiredness or fatigue; if brain damage develops (acute cerebral edema) further symptoms appear, such as incoordination of movements, altered state of consciousness, visual deficits, paralysis of the cranial nerves, etc.

The disturbances related to the high mountains depend on various factors, such as the speed of ascent, the height reached, the height at which the person can sleep regularly, as well as individual physiological aspects. It is estimated that this condition appears in about 20% of subjects at an altitude between 1850 and 2750 and, in over 40%, at 3000 m.

Go back to the menu


How to prevent altitude sickness

First of all, the best strategy is to go up gradually, thus favoring the acclimatization process. Once you reach 2500 m, the altitude at which you sleep should not increase by 600 m every 24 hours; in the event that the increase is between 600 and 1200 m, an additional day of acclimatization is required.

Prevention must concern those who rise in one day only to over 3000 g or those who have already experienced the symptoms of this condition in the past.

  • For cerebral symptoms, prevention consists in administering a mild diuretic (acetazolamide) at a dosage of 125 mg 2 times a day; to prevent headache we recommend the administration of acetylsalicylic acid in tablets, at a dosage of 325 mg every 4 hours, for a maximum of 3 administrations.
  • For respiratory symptoms, inhaled bronchodilators (for example, salmeterol, 1 spray 2 times a day) or, in subjects who have already had an episode of acute pulmonary edema, a slow-release calcium channel blocker starting the day before the climb with 1 tablet and continuing for 2-3 days at altitude. Excessive hydration should be avoided.

Go back to the menu


What to do

  • Those who do not respond to drugs must immediately descend to a lower altitude (-500 or -1000 m), especially if the symptoms are important; an ascent to higher heights is allowed only in case of complete disappearance of symptoms.
  • If available, the administration of oxygen (at 2-4 l / min), associated with the descent, quickly improves the situation. The use of a hyperbaric chamber (there are portable ones) also favors a rapid improvement.
  • For brain symptoms, treatment involves the use of a diuretic and possibly cortisone. Headache responds to ibuprofen administration at a single dose of 400 or 600 mg. Antiemetic drugs are indicated in case of vomiting.
  • For acute respiratory symptoms, oxygen at a higher concentration of 4-6 l / min must be administered together with a calcium channel blocker.

Go back to the menu