Freezing and freezing - First Aid

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First aid

First aid

Outdoor life pathologies

Tetanus Animal bites Freezing and freezing Mountain sickness Poisoning and accidental poisoning Carbon monoxide poisoning Accidental needle punctures and the like: what are the risks? What to do? What not to do? Red eye Car sickness and seasickness (motion sickness)
  • Tetanus
  • Animal bites
  • Freezing and freezing
    • Definition and treatment
    • What to do
    • What not to do
    • Freezing: definition and treatment
    • What to do
  • Mountain sickness
  • Accidental poisoning and poisoning
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Accidental needle sticks and the like: what are the risks? What to do? What not to do?
  • Red eye
  • Car sickness and seasickness (motion sickness)

Freezing and freezing

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Definition and treatment

It is a lesion that can affect some parts of the body as a consequence of direct exposure to the cold, involving the skin and underlying tissues. It occurs with temperatures between –4 and –10 ° C but it can also occur with less rigid temperatures, as happens for example when the person wears wet or too tight clothing, or if he remains motionless for a long period of time. The recommended behaviors in case of suspected freezing are listed below.

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What to do

  • Isolate the subject from the cold by transporting it to a sheltered place.
  • Replace wet and / or tight clothing.
  • Protect affected areas from injury with cotton wool.
  • Heat the frozen parts gradually.
  • Give hot sugary drinks.

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What not to do

  • It is not recommended to rub the affected parts with hands, alcohol or snow.
  • Do not try to pierce the bubbles that may be present in the wound.
  • Do not expose the subject to excessive heat and avoid direct contact with hot objects.
  • Do not give alcohol.

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Freezing: definition and treatment

If a person shows signs of generalized cooling, with lowering of body temperature (hypothermia), this condition must be treated with absolute precedence. Hypothermia or frostbite disorders start when the internal body temperature drops below 35 ºC (assessed with rectal measurement or with thermometers that are applied inside the ear). Symptoms accompanying frostbite include: general symptoms such as feeling hungry, nauseated, dizzy, breathing difficulties; marked weakness and chills; mental confusion, which can in some cases lead to loss of consciousness; increase in diuresis (but later a reduction or even disappearance of anuria may appear); cardiovascular symptoms such as increased heart rate and respiratory rate (typical of the initial phase, while later a progressive slowdown of both appears).

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What to do

  • Take the victim to a sheltered place and remove all causes of cooling, such as wet clothes.
  • Avoid the subject any form of movement because this can trigger heart attacks from changes in rhythm.
  • Give food and hot drinks.
  • Share the warmth of your body with the victim, for example by placing yourself in close contact in the same sleeping bag or in a bed.
  • Call the Territorial Emergency Service (118) for immediate hospitalization.

What not to do

In general, never assume that an individual in hypothermia is dead, since in this state the human body can resist even very long.

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