Animal bites - First Aid

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First aid

First aid

Outdoor life pathologies

Tetanus Animal bites Freezing and freezing Mountain sickness Poisoning and accidental poisoning Carbon monoxide poisoning Accidental needle punctures and the like: what are the risks? What to do? What not to do? Red eye Car sickness and seasickness (motion sickness)
  • Tetanus
  • Animal bites
    • What to do in case of animal bite (dog, cat, hamster)
    • What to do in case of a snake bite (or viper)
    • What to do in case of insect bites
  • Freezing and freezing
  • Mountain sickness
  • Accidental poisoning and poisoning
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Accidental needle sticks and the like: what are the risks? What to do? What not to do?
  • Red eye
  • Car sickness and seasickness (motion sickness)

Animal bites

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What to do in case of animal bite (dog, cat, hamster)

The victim of a bite must always be accompanied by the doctor or the emergency room; the bite (or scratch) wound of an animal must however be treated immediately by cleansing with soap and water: it is essential that it is rinsed several times and then disinfected with hydrogen peroxide or other disinfectant product, to avoid the risk of local infections or widespread whole organism. The wound should therefore be protected with a dressing made with sterile gauze.

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What to do in case of a snake bite (or viper)

  • It is essential to remain calm, to put the victim in a comfortable position, keeping her still, and to call 118. If there is no phone available or if the cell phone does not work (as can happen in the open countryside or in the mountains), you can momentarily leave the injured person to go and look for an area covered by the signal, or from which help can be called.
  • Avoid sucking maneuvers at the bite site, both because they must be carried out with skill and because their real usefulness has never been demonstrated.
  • Avoid applying tight laces upstream of the viper bite, because this causes a blockage of the venous circulation but the lymphatic flow is not blocked, which is the way by which the poison spreads in the body.
  • Instead, try to immobilize the affected limb with splints and bandages, because immobility reduces the spread of the poison.
  • It may be useful to apply a local bandage using a 7-10 cm high bandage, not too tight.

For the prevention of snake bites, it is advisable to follow some precautions, such as: wearing socks and ankle-high boots when walking in the countryside or in the woods; be careful when using your hands to move stones or grass or shrubs to pick mushrooms or herbs; always use a stick to move aside leaves or branches.

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What to do in case of insect bites

If the person suffering from the insect bite is allergic to the hymenoptera venom, symptoms such as sweating, pallor, difficulty breathing, urticaria and loss of consciousness, which are characteristic of anaphylactic shock, serious occurrence which, if not properly treated, can be lethal. When anaphylactic shock is suspected, the affected person should be lying down and covered, and 118 should be called immediately. The victim should also be carefully observed and, if necessary, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation may be initiated pending rescue. In all other cases, the stinger must be extracted with tweezers avoiding breaking it: if left in place, this continues to release poison for several minutes; it is known, for example, that the bee stinger releases poison for another 20 minutes after the sting. The toe skin should be washed and disinfected with hydrogen peroxide; it may also be useful to pass an ammonia wipe locally, which may inactivate the poison. If the person has been stung in the mouth it is advisable to gargle them with cold salted water (2 tablespoons of salt per glass of water). In general, the application of an ice cube both on the skin and in the mouth reduces pain and reduces the formation of edema. However, it is advisable to always consult the doctor and, especially in the case of multiple punctures or in the mouth, it is advisable to promptly accompany the subject to the emergency room.

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