Diets: famous and extravagant - Nutrition

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Diets: famous and extravagant

Dieting hurts Body composition Trendy diets: FAD diet The standard of comparison or the Mediterranean model Omega 3 The ideal diet (modern) models of diet (slimming) Classification of diets
  • Dieting hurts
  • Body composition
  • Trendy diets: FAD diet
  • The standard of comparison or the Mediterranean model
  • Omega 3
  • The ideal diet
  • (Modern) diet (slimming) models
  • Classification of diets

Hippocrates (460-357 BC) already spoke of "the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too much and not too little".

Attention to diet and the way it affects health has grown enormously today. Often, however, this word is attributed to the meaning of limiting food intake and not - more correctly - that of a global diet.

For current language, therefore, when we speak of diet we refer to a low-calorie diet adopted for the purpose of losing weight. About 50% of the population of the so-called evolved world is "on a diet", and this explains why the topic has continued to stimulate the research and imagination of many doctors, scientists, enthusiasts and wellness gurus for about a century, who with fortunes alternate they did not want to make humanity miss what they experienced, discovered or simply intuited.

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Dieting hurts

Our body perceives the voluntary restriction of food intake as something wrong and not physiological. In the evolution of the human species, those individuals who knew how to take advantage of periods of food abundance by stocking up on energy (subcutaneous fat) and economized by spending less in the famine phases were selected positively (that is, they managed to survive better). This thrifty genotype theory, developed by the geneticist James Neel in 1962, although there are recent alternative hypotheses, meets many consensus in the scientific community and explains very well why some populations lived in more hostile environments than in the area of Mediterranean are more at risk than European man in developing so-called wellness diseases.

Classic is the example of the Pima Indians of America, who were perfectly adapted to the environment of large prairies according to the rhythms of nature and the migrations of the bison and then began to get sick with great frequency of diabetes and atherosclerosis since they adopted the colonist habits, with a much higher incidence of disease than whites.

If it is true that in our body there are mechanisms to control deposits and energy expenditure that tend to balance the balance, it is equally true that these mechanisms are much more precise and careful when the energy introduced decreases (so we tend to recover quickly what lost), while they are more inaccurate on the caloric intake side, so it is quite simple to accumulate a few pounds of fat over a year.

Doctors who deal with clinical dietetics, that is, in the field, know well that, often, important weight gains are preceded or triggered by rapid weight loss: no matter what the cause is (a disease, stress, depression or simply the inability to access food), the result does not change; malnutrition triggers energy-saving mechanisms in our body and when food returns normally available, or appreciated, it happens that our body tends to accumulate supplies and accepts even more painfully than before stopping the meal for satiety.

If losing weight with a diet is difficult, maintaining the weight achieved is even more difficult, given that in 85% of cases it recovered within 5 years. For this reason, dieting is never physiological; it must be considered the lesser evil when medical conditions dictate it. Furthermore, if food restrictions become drastic and upset rhythms and habits, they can turn into a boomerang that turns against us, causing greater weight recoveries than lost.

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