Disabled people - Assisting a family member


Assisting a family member

Assisting a family member

The disabled

Handicap and computer science: tools to reduce myelological disabilities and sexuality
  • Handicap and IT: tools to reduce disability
  • Myelolese and sexuality

Handicap and IT: tools to reduce disability

Disability is a condition that affects many people; when the impairments are serious you are entitled to the recognition of civil invalidity.

Civil disabled are “citizens with progressive or congenital or acquired disabilities, including mentally ill people due to organic or dysmetabolic oligophrenia, mental insufficiencies deriving from sensorial and functional defects that have undergone a permanent reduction in working capacity of not less than a third or, if under 18 years of age, who have persistent difficulties in carrying out their age's duties and functions. For the sole purpose of social and health care and the accompanying allowance, persons over sixty-five who have persistent difficulties in carrying out the tasks and functions of their age are considered mutilated and disabled "(article 2, paragraph 2, Law 118 / 71, supplemented by article 6 of Legislative Decree 509/88).

As can be easily understood, information technology performs an important function of "rehabilitation" and support for people with disabilities; home automation is also able to decrease difficulties and improve the space in which you live.

The main IT aids designed to reduce disability and to allow people with mobility problems to access the computer include:

  • special keyboards;
  • mouse emulators;
  • sensors;
  • communicators.

Special keyboards respond to a wide range of needs depending on the type and severity of the subject's disability. The keyboards for the blind or for people with motor problems, for example, are equipped with large keys and allow access to the computer without the need for drivers; other models, on the other hand, are equipped with very small keys to facilitate people with difficulty in large movements and limited strength and allow you to emulate the mouse.

In the case of severe disability, alternative pointing systems designed for people who cannot manage the mouse normally used for computer work can be used. Eyegaze is a device that allows alphabetical communication and computer management through the movement of the pupil: this system uses pointing with one eye (mono-ocular); a special camera captures the movement of the pupil, which the program then codes and transforms. After the subject has fixed the letters of the keyboard or the icons for a certain period, they will be selected on the display. With this system it is possible, only through the movement of the pupil, to compose words and, if desired, reproduce them thanks to vocal synthesis. The system consists of a camera, a small computer and a liquid crystal monitor, to which is added the special support structure.

There are also optical devices that allow you to transmit head movements to the pointer on the video with extreme precision. The system consists of a reflective source to be fixed on the subject's forehead or glasses and an optical sensor to be placed on the monitor.

Another type of emulator allows to manage the functions of a common mouse through the mouth: the special mouthpiece works like a joystick which, thanks to the movements of the head, directs the cursor. Click functions are performed by blowing or vacuuming.

For subjects who can only count on very little muscle strength and limited range of movement, there are mouse emulators whose use requires only minimal force, joystick-shaped emulators equipped with a proportional lever that reproduces mouse movements or, again, trackball-shaped emulators, that is, with a sphere that, by rotating, allows you to maneuver the pointer.

The sensors allow the motor recovery of disabled patients. With sensors you can manage complex systems with a simple click. Based on the number of buttons possessed, there are single sensors and multiple sensors.

Single sensors have a single button and are used with special boxes that communicate with computers. Some types of boxes, in addition to functioning as an interface for the sensors, allowing access to the computer, can also be used as keyboard or mouse emulators.

Communicators are systems that allow you to communicate in different ways through symbols or letters. Alphabetical communicators, often portable, report the typed sentences on a double screen so that both the writer and the person reading can see the words in real time. Symbolic communicators are tools that can record a voice message and play it through a button.

In addition to the aforementioned tools, there are also accessories of various kinds to improve the positioning of the limbs and allow their support while working on the computer. This type of support allows the limbs to move and move in operations related to keyboard and mouse management. For more information, visit www.helpicare.com

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